Higher and foundation tier
The non-metals are found on the left-hand side of the periodic table in groups 3,4,5,6,7 and group (0 or 8). Group 7 is called the halogens and group 8 (or 0) is called the Noble gases. The image shows an outline of where the non-metals are found in the periodic table.
The physical properties of an element will depend largely on the type of structure it has and on the bonding present within the elements. The structure of the non-metal elements varies from the giant covalent network found for the group 4 elements e.g. carbon and silicon. Most of the non-metals have small molecular structures e.g. the halogens in group 7 all consist of small diatomic molecules, that is molecules made up of just 2 atoms. Whereas the Noble gases in group 0 do not react easily and consist of single atoms. The properties of non-metals are shown in the table below, where they are compared with those of metals.
|physical property of a typical non-metal||physical property of a metal|
|electrical insulator||electrical conductor|
|thermal insulator||thermal conductor|
|brittle (if solid)||malleable|
|low density||high density|
|low melting point||high melting point|
|dull (if solid)||shiny|
The image below shows the structure for most of the non-metals you are likely to meet. You can see that the group 4 non-metals carbon and silicon have covalent giant structures but that groups 5, 6 and 7 non-metals have molecular structures. The Noble gases being almost inert consist of single atoms.
The group 5 elements nitrogen and phosphorus are the ones we need to consider.
These two elements have small
molecular structures. Nitrogen consists of two atoms joined together by a triple covalent bonds
in a small diatomic molecule, N2. There are two common allotropes (types or forms) of phosphorus, white phosphorus which
consists of a small molecule made of 4 phosphorus atoms joined in a tetrahedral shaped molecule,
which is shown in the image above. The other allotrope is red phosphorus which is a polymer made by linking many P4
tetrahedrons together to form a long chain.
White phosphorus is highly reactive and bursts into flames when exposed to oxygen in the air, this is why it is stored under water. It is a very dangerous element to handle and is used by the military in bombs and grenades and is one of the main ingredients in napalm. These two elements have small molecular structures and consist entirely of covalent bonds, the small molecular structure means they have low melting and boiling points. White phosphorus melting point (m.p.) is 440C and its boiling point (b.p.) is 2800C, nitrogen m.p. is -2100C and its b.p is -1950C.
Two group 6 elements are shown opposite and in the image above, these are oxygen and sulfur. Sulfur is a very
common element and there are large underground deposits of elemental sulfur. Sulfur is one of the few elements
that can be found relatively pure in the Earth. It is a yellow solid with a molecular structure.
many different allotropes (forms or types) of sulfur and many of them have sulfur atoms in rings
containing 6 sulfur
atoms all the way to larger rings containing 20 atoms. The most stable form at room temperature is
the allotrope containing 8 sulfur atoms, formula S8, in the ring structure, shown opposite in the diagram.
Perhaps the most memorable fact about sulfur that you are likely to remember from using it in the lab is the really bad smell of many sulfur compounds. Burning sulfur produces sulfur dioxide, an irritating foul smell gas, which smells of rotten eggs. Hydrogen sulphide gas (H2S), forms when sulfur and hydrogen atoms join, this obnoxious smelling gas is used in stink bombs!!
Oxygen is a small diatomic molecule containing 2 atoms held in place by a double covalent bond. Like the elements in group 5 both sulfur and oxygen are small molecular substances with low melting and boiling points. Sulfur melts at 1150C and boils at 4440C while oxygen, a much smaller molecule, has a m.p of -2190C and a b.p of -1830C. Like all substances with covalent bonds they are electrical insulators and will not conduct electricity. The reason for this is simply because all the electrons are held in covalent bonds and are not free to move as they are in metals.
Group 7 non-metals are called halogens. The halogens are fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine.
Astatine at the bottom of group 7 is a very rare and highly radioactive element.
It has some uses in cancer treatments and other medical treatments.
The word halogen comes from the Greek words meaning salt-former, hals (salt) and gennan meaning to form. The halogens are all very reactive elements and are not found as elements in nature, instead they are found combined in compounds found in rocks and minerals.
They are all toxic and corrosive and great care is needed in handling these reactive elements, though iodine as the least reactive halogen and being a solid is the easiest and safest halogen to handle in the lab. The halogens all consist of small diatomic molecules which means they will have low melting and boiling points. The reactions and properties of the halogens are discussed in more detail on a separate page- The halogens. Fluorine and chlorine are coloured gases at room temperature, fluorine is a green-yellowish gas similar in colour to chlorine but paler. Bromine is a reddish brown volatile liquid which produces very corrosive and toxic vapours. Iodine is a purple coloured solid with a reflective sheen. It sublimes with mild heating to form a beautiful violet coloured vapour.