|Atoms, elements and compounds
||Introduction to the elements in the periodic table, formula for simple compounds. Definition of elements
,compounds and molecules. Particle pictures for compounds. Details on the properties of elements and
|Thompson's Plum pudding model of the atom.
||Details of John Dalton's atomic theory and J.J Thompson's experiments with cathode rays and his Plum Pudding model of the atom.
| The nuclear atom
||Details of Ernest Rutherford's gold foil scattering experiment and his conclusions. Brief mention of Chadwick and the discovery of the neutron.
||Introduction to the internal structure of the atom. Find out about the properties of protons, neutrons
and electrons. Introduction to the nuclear atom and electron shells.
| Calculate the number of protons, neutrons and electrons inside atoms.
||How to calculate the number of protons, neutrons and electrons in an atom. Details on atomic number, mass number
and electron arrangements.
||How to calculate the electron arrangements for the first 20 elements in the periodic table.
|Atoms to ions
||Explanation of the octet rule and how to work out the charges formed on ions.
||Explanation of what isotopes are with examples of how to calculate their relative atomic mass.
| Covalent bonding.
||Explanation of how to draw dot and cross diagrams for covalent compounds. Examples given for molecules with
single, double and triple covalent bonds.
|Drawing covalent molecules
||Description and discussion of the merits of the various ways of drawing covalent molecules.
| Properties of simple molecular molecules.
||Explanation of intermolecular and intramolecular bonding and how this effects the properties of covalent
|Giant macromolecular covalent substances
||Description and discussion of the structure and properties of diamond, graphite and silica.
||Discussion of the structure, properties and uses of graphene.
||Description and discussion of the structure and properties of buckyballs and carbon nanotubes.
| Balancing equations
||Tips on how to balance symbolic equations with examples to try and balance yourself.
| Calculate % composition by mass
||Quick guide on how to calculate the % composition by mass of each element in a compound.
|The law of conservation of mass
||Introduction to the law of conservation of mass with examples.
| Ar, Mr and the mole
||Quick guide on how to calculate Mr for a compound and the mass of a mole.
||Introduction to the mole and relative atomic masses.
| Mole calculations
||Examples on how to calculate the number of moles of a susbstance using masses and Mr information.
|Moles and equations
||Explanation with examples on how to calculate reacting masses using moles calculations.
| Balanced equations from reacting masses
||Examples on how to work out empirical formula and balanced symbolic equations from reacting masses.
||Explanation with a worked example on limiting reactions by having one reagent in excess.
| Calculating concentrations
||Examples on how to work out the concentration of solutions.
|Gases and molar volumes
||Brief explanation with examples on how to calculate the volume occupied by gases using Avogadro's theorem.
| % yield
||Examples on how to work out the % yield of a chemical reaction with
reasons as to why yields are rarely 100%.
| atom economy
||Explanation of atom economy and how to calculate it.
||Examples of metal oxygen/water reactions and the meaning of the term oxidation and reduction.
| Metal acid reactions
||Examples of metal acid reactions with equations. Definitions of oxidation, reduction and redox reactions.
|Metal displacement reactions
||Examples with equations to show displacement reactions of involving metals.
| Metal extraction
||Examples and discussion on how metals are extracted from their ores
| The blast furnace
||Explanation with diagrams to explain how iron is produced inside a blast furnace.
||Explanation with examples and equations to show what happens during the the electrolysis of molten ionic compounds. The migration of coloured ions is also discussed.
| Aluminium extraction
||Explanation with diagrams to explain how aluminium is produced by electrolysis of bauxite dissolved in cryolite.
|Electrolysis of solutions
||Explanation with examples and equations on how to predict the products of electrolysis of solutions
||Explanation of how to electroplate an object and the uses of electroplated objects.
|Hydrocarbons and the alkanes
||Introduction to hydrocarbons and the alkanes. Explanation of the term homologous series and general formula
|physical properties of alkanes
||Explanation of how molecular size of alkane molecules affects boiling and melting points, viscosity and
|Combustion of alkanes
||Complete and incomplete combustion of alkanes and how to test for the products of combustion.
|Introduction to the alkenes
||Introduction to the structure of unsaturated alkene molecules.
|Reactions of alkenes
||Description of addition reactions of alkenes. Equations given for addition of hydrogen, chlorine and bromine
to unsaturated molecules. Equations for addition of steam to C=C to make alcohols. Bromine test for unsaturation also discussed.
|Fractional distillation of crude oil
||Explanation of how crude oil is distilled and separated into different fractions at an oil refinery.
||Explanation of how thermal, catalytic and steam cracking are used to produce valuable hydrocarbon molecules
from large unwanted molecules.
|Introduction to the alcohols
||Introduction to the structure, naming and uses of alcohols.
| Reactions of alcohols
||Description of reactions of alcohols. Equations given for combustion of alcohols. The solubility of alcohols is
discussed. Reactions of sodium metal with alcohols is covered with equations given and trends identified. Finally the
oxidation of alcohols to carboxylic acids is covered.
|Making alcohols- fermentation and direct hydration
||Introduction to fermentation and direct hydration. Two common methods used to make alcohols
| Carboxylic acids
||Introduction to the properties and reactions of carboxylic acids. Reactions of carboxylic acids with metal
carbonates is covered with equations.
||Introduction to esters. How they are named and how to make them.
|Purity and Formulations
||Description of pure substances and also formulations with examples of each.
||Explanation of how chromatography works and how it can be used to identify substances. Explanation
of how to calculate Rf values.
|Tests for common gases
||Description of the tests for hydrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and chlorine gases.
|Chemical tests for anions
||Description of the tests for carbonate, halide and sulfate ions.
||Flame tests and chemical tests for metal ions and other cations.
|flame emission spectroscopy
||Description and explanation of how flame emission spectroscopy works.
|Evolution of the Earth's atmosphere
||Explanation of how the atmosphere of the Earth formed and how it has changed over time.
|The Greenhouse effect
||Description and explanation of the Greenhouse effect.
||Explanation of the term carbon footprint, example of the problems in actually calculating your
carbon footprint. Discussion on why it is difficult for some people/countries/organisation to reduce their
||Description and explanation of how burning fuels causes atmospheric pollution
|Using the Earth's resources and sustainable development
||Description of how the resources of our planet are used and how these resources can be used in a sustainable way.
Discussion on renewable and finite resources. Discussion on use of bioleaching and phytomining as a method of extracting
||Explanation of how water is made fit for human consumption. Includes explanation of what happens at the waterworks,
desalination of water and reverse osmosis.
|Waste water treatment
||Description of how waste water is treated before being discharged into rivers.
|Life cycle assessment
||Explanation of the 4 main steps in any life cycle assessment
||Description of the conditions needed for the corrosion of a metal.
|Methods of preventing corrosion
||Explanation with examples on how to prevent metals from corroding. This page covers barrier methods, sacrificial protection
||Introduction to alloys. Examples on gold alloys and there uses as well as steels, aluminium alloys, brass and bronze. Explanation
of why alloys are important and why they are often used instead of metals.
|Clay ceramics and glass
||Explanation of what clay ceramics are and their uses. Details on how glasses are made and their common properties and
||Introduction to common composite materials, their properties and uses.
||Explanation of difference between thermosoftening and thermosetting polymers. Details on high and low
|The Haber process
||This page gives details on the Haber process for making ammonia.
||Introduction to NPK fertilisers and their importance and the names of common fertilisers.
|How to make fertilisers.
||Details on how neutralisation reactions are used to make fertilisers.
|Fertilisers- how they are made in the lab and in industry
||Details on how fertilisers are made in the lab and in industry. Discussion of Ostwald process and also making fertilisers from