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The tables below contain a brief description of all the gcse chemistry pages in this site. Simply click the link for the page you wish to view.


Atomic structure, electron arrangements and isotopes

Atoms, elements and compounds Introduction to the elements in the periodic table, formula for simple compounds. Definition of elements ,compounds and molecules. Particle pictures for compounds. Details on the properties of elements and compounds.
Thomson's Plum pudding model of the atom. Details of John Dalton's atomic theory and J.J Thomson's experiments with cathode rays and his Plum Pudding model of the atom.
The nuclear atom Details of Ernest Rutherford's gold foil scattering experiment and his conclusions. Brief mention of Chadwick and the discovery of the neutron.
Atomic structure Introduction to the internal structure of the atom. Find out about the properties of protons, neutrons and electrons. Introduction to the nuclear atom and electron shells.
Calculate the number of protons, neutrons and electrons inside atoms. How to calculate the number of protons, neutrons and electrons in an atom. Details on atomic number, mass number and electron arrangements.
electron arrangements How to calculate the electron arrangements for the first 20 elements in the periodic table.
Atoms to ions Explanation of the octet rule and how to work out the charges formed on ions.
Isotopes Explanation of what isotopes are with examples of how to calculate their relative atomic mass.

Separating mixtures

Filtration and crystallisation Introduction to the filtration and crystallisation.
distillation Explanation of how simple and fractional distillation can be used to separate a mixture of liquids with different boiling points.
Chromatography Introduction to paper chromatography with an explanation of how it works. Rf values introduced with an explanation of how Rf values can be used to identify unknown substances.
Separating immiscible liquids Description of how a separating funnel is used to separate immiscible liquids.

The periodic table, metals and non-metals.

Development of the periodic table. Introduction to the work of Dalton, Newlands and Mendeleev in the construction of the periodic table of elements.
The modern periodic table. Brief description of how the modern day periodic table is set out and arranged.
Metals- chemical and physical properties. Explanation and discussion of the chemical and physical properties of metals.
Non-metals- groups 5,6 and 7. Introduction to structure bonding and properties of several non-metal elements in groups 5, 6 and 7.
The Noble gases- group 0. Explanation and discussion of the chemical and physical properties of the noble gases
Reactions and properties of the alkali metals- group 1. Introduction to the chemical reactions and physical properties of the group 1 alkali metals.
The halogens- group 7. Explanation and discussion of the trends in the chemical reactions of halogens with metals and hydrogen. Description and explanation of the physical properties of halogens.
Halogen displacement reactions Explanation and description of halogen displacement reactions with equations.
Transition metals Discussion of properties of the transition metals.

Ionic compounds, bonding and properties of ionic compounds

Ionic bonding dot and cross diagrams Explanation of how ions are formed. Examples of dot and cross diagrams for the formation of ionic compounds.
Structure of ionic compounds. Description and examples of the structure of ionic compounds. Discussion of nature of ionic lattices and how they are constructed.
Properties of ionic compounds Description of the physical properties of ionic compounds with examples.

Covalent bonding- properties of simple molecular and giant macromolecular compounds

Covalent bonding. Explanation of how to draw dot and cross diagrams for covalent compounds. Examples given for molecules with single, double and triple covalent bonds.
Drawing covalent molecules Description and discussion of the merits of the various ways of drawing covalent molecules.
Properties of simple molecular molecules. Explanation of intermolecular and intramolecular bonding and how this affects the properties of covalent molecules.
Giant macromolecular covalent substances Description and discussion of the structure and properties of diamond, graphite and silica.
Graphene. Discussion of the structure, properties and uses of graphene.
Fullerenes Description and discussion of the structure and properties of buckyballs and carbon nanotubes.

Metallic bonding, nanotechnology and the 3 states of matter

Metallic bonding Discussion of the common properties of metals and metallic bonding.
Nanotechnology Description and uses of nanotechnology. Examples given with pros and cons of this new technology
Matter Recap of the properties of the 3 states of matter, the particle model and limitations of the particle model. Change of state is briefly covered.

Quantitative Chemistry

Finding the formula Worked examples on how to find the formula for compounds.
Balancing equations Tips on how to balance symbolic equations with examples to try and balance yourself.
Calculate % composition by mass Quick guide on how to calculate the % composition by mass of each element in a compound.
The law of conservation of mass Introduction to the law of conservation of mass with examples.
Ar, Mr and the mole Introduction on how to calculate the relative formula mass (Mr ) of a compound as well as a defintion for relative atomic mass (Ar) and a brief introduction to the mole and Avagadro's number.
The mole Introduction to the mole and relative atomic masses.
Mole calculations Examples on how to calculate the number of moles of a substance using masses and Mr information.
Moles and equations Explanation with examples on how to calculate reacting masses using moles calculations.
Empirical formula and how to work out balanced equations from reacting masses Examples on how to work out empirical formula and balanced symbolic equations from reacting masses.
Limiting reactions Explanation with a worked example on limiting reactions by having one reagent in excess.
Calculating concentrations Examples on how to work out the concentration of solutions.
Gases and molar volumes Brief explanation with examples on how to calculate the volume occupied by gases using Avogadro's theorem.
% yield Examples on how to work out the % yield of a chemical reaction with reasons as to why yields are rarely 100%.
atom economy Explanation of atom economy and how to calculate it.

Acids, alkalis, neutralisation and titrations

Introduction to the properties of acids. Introduction to the common properties of acids. Explanation of how to prepare acids by dissolving non-metal oxides in water.
Alkalis and bases Explanation of the difference between alkalis and bases
Neutralisation Explanation with equations of simple acid/alkali neutralisation reactions using hydrochloric, sulfuric and nitric acids.
Simple neutralisation reactions Explanation of how to carry out a neutralisation reaction using an acid and an alkali.
Neutralisation using an insoluble base Explanation with equations of how to neutralise an acid using the insoluble base copper oxide. The procedure to carry out a recrystallization and melting point determination is also covered.
Neutralisation of an acid using metal carbonates Explanation of how to carry out a neutralisation reaction using an acid and a metal carbonate
Strong and weak acids Description and explanation of the differences between strong and weak acids.
Titrations Explanation on how to carry out a typical titration experiment to calculate the concentration of an unknown sodium hydroxide solution.

Reactions of metals, electrolysis and electroplating

Metal reactivity Examples of metal oxygen/water reactions and the meaning of the term oxidation and reduction.
Metal acid reactions Examples of metal acid reactions with equations. Definitions of oxidation, reduction and redox reactions.
Metal displacement reactions Examples with equations to show displacement reactions of involving metals.
Metal extraction Examples and discussion on how metals are extracted from their ores including heating with hydrogen, carbon, phytomining and bioleaching.
The blast furnace Explanation with diagrams to explain how iron is produced inside a blast furnace.
Electrolysis Explanation with examples and equations to show what happens during the electrolysis of molten ionic compounds. The migration of coloured ions is also discussed.
Aluminium extraction Explanation with diagrams to explain how aluminium is produced by electrolysis of bauxite dissolved in cryolite.
Electrolysis of solutions Explanation with examples and equations on how to predict the products of electrolysis of solutions
Electroplating Explanation of how to electroplate an object and the uses of electroplated objects.

Energy changes- Exothermic, endothermic reactions, fuel cells and batteries.

Exothermic and endothermic reaction Introduction with definitions and examples of exothermic and endothermic reactions
Energy profile diagrams Description and explanation of how to draw energy profile diagrams for exothermic and endothermic reactions.
Bond energies and enthalpy changes Explanation of bond energies with examples on how to calculate enthalpy changes using bond energy data
Cells and batteries Description and explanation of the difference between cells and batteries and how to set-up simple cells.
Fuel cells Explanation of how fuel cells work with examples.

Rates of reaction and equilibrium

Introduction to the rates of reaction topic. Explanation with examples on different methods used to measure the rate of a chemical reaction
Collision theory Explanation and discussion of collision theory and activation energy as well as the factors that affect the rates of chemical reactions.
The effect of temperature and concentration on the rate of a reaction Explanation of how temperature and concentration affect the rate of a chemical reaction
The effect of surface area on the rate of a reaction Explanation with examples on how surface area affects the rate of a reaction.
The effect of a catalyst on reaction rate. Explanation with examples on how a catalyst affects the rate of a chemical reaction.
Calculating rates of reaction Explanation on how to calculate the rates of chemical reactions.
Reversible reactions and dynamic equilibrium Explanation and discussion of reversible reactions and dynamic equilibrium.
Le Chatelier's Principle Explanation of how Le Chatelier's principle is used to adjust equilibrium conditions in a reversible reaction.

Organic chemistry

Hydrocarbons and the alkanes Explanation of how crude oil is formed from plankton. Introduction to hydrocarbons and the alkanes. Explanation of the terms homologous series and general formula for alkanes.
physical properties of alkanes Explanation of how molecular size of alkane molecules affects boiling and melting points, viscosity and flammability.
Combustion of alkanes Complete and incomplete combustion of alkanes and how to test for the products of combustion.
Introduction to the alkenes Introduction to the structure of unsaturated alkene molecules.
Reactions of alkenes Description of addition reactions of alkenes. Equations given for addition of hydrogen, chlorine and bromine to unsaturated molecules. Equations for addition of steam to C=C to make alcohols. Bromine test for unsaturation also discussed.
Fractional distillation of crude oil Explanation of how crude oil is distilled and separated into different fractions at an oil refinery.
Cracking Explanation of how thermal, catalytic and steam cracking are used to produce valuable hydrocarbon molecules from large unwanted molecules.
Introduction to the alcohols Introduction to the structure, naming and uses of alcohols.
Reactions of alcohols Description of reactions of alcohols. Equations given for combustion of alcohols. The solubility of alcohols is discussed. Reactions of sodium metal with alcohols is covered with equations given and trends identified. Finally the oxidation of alcohols to carboxylic acids is covered.
Making alcohols- fermentation and direct hydration Introduction to fermentation and direct hydration. Two common methods used to make alcohols
Carboxylic acids Introduction to the properties and reactions of carboxylic acids. Reactions of carboxylic acids with metal carbonates are covered with equations.
Esters Introduction to esters. How they are named and how to make them.

Polymers- Condensation and addition.

Addition polymerisation Explanation of how the addition polymer polythene is made.
Addition polymerisation examples Explanation with equations on how to make poly(ethene), poly(chloroethene), poly(tetrafluoroethene)and poly(propene)
Properties of addition polymers Examples on how changing the temperature, pressure or use of a catalyst can alter the structure of a polymer. Examples and discussion on the differences between HDPE and LDPE. Thermosetting and thermosoftening polymers are also discussed.
Condensation polymerisation Introduction to condensation polymerisation with examples on how to make polyesters using diols and diacids.
Polyamides and protiens The formation of polyamides from diamines and dicarboxylic acids is discussed along with the formation of polypeptides from amino acids.
Proteins and amino-acids. Discussion with examples on how amino acids combine to form polypeptides and proteins. Examples to show the structure of amino acids and polypeptides/proteins.
How the polymer DNA is made. Discussion on nucleotides and nucleosides and how these link up to form DNA.
How the polymers starch and cellulose are made from glucose monomers.. Discussion with examples on the structure of glucose, starch and cellulose. Explanations of how the monomer glucose polymerises to make starch and cellulose.

Chemical Analysis- chromatography and tests for metal ions and common gases.

Purity and Formulations Description of pure substances and also formulations with examples of each.
Chromatography Explanation of how chromatography works and how it can be used to identify substances. Explanation of how to calculate Rf values.
Tests for common gases Description of the tests for hydrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and chlorine gases.
Chemical tests for anions Description of the tests for carbonate, halide and sulfate ions.
Testing for cations Details on how to carry out flame tests and other chemical tests to identify metal ions and other cations.
flame emission spectroscopy Description and explanation of how flame emission spectroscopy works.

The Earth and its atmosphere

Evolution of the Earth's atmosphere Explanation of how the atmosphere of the Earth formed and how it has changed over time.
The Greenhouse effect Description and explanation of the Greenhouse effect.
Carbon footprint Explanation of the term carbon footprint, example of the problems in actually calculating your carbon footprint. Discussion on why it is difficult for some people/countries/organisation to reduce their carbon footprint
Atmospheric pollution Description and explanation of how burning fuels causes atmospheric pollution
Using the Earth's resources and sustainable development Description of how the resources of our planet are used and how these resources can be used in a sustainable way. Discussion on renewable and finite resources. Discussion on use of bioleaching and phytomining as a method of extracting metals.
Life cycle assessment Explanation of the 4 main steps in any life cycle assessment

Water and water treatment

Potable water Explanation of how water is made fit for human consumption. Includes explanation of what happens at the waterworks, desalination of water and reverse osmosis.
Waste water treatment Description of how waste water is treated before being discharged into rivers.

Metals, alloys, ceramics and polymers

Corrosion Description of the conditions needed for the corrosion of a metal.
Methods of preventing corrosion Explanation with examples on how to prevent metals from corroding. This page covers barrier methods, sacrificial protection and alloying.
Alloys Introduction to alloys. Examples on gold alloys and there uses as well as steels, aluminium alloys, brass and bronze. Explanation of why alloys are important and why they are often used instead of metals.
Clay ceramics and glass Explanation of what clay ceramics are and their uses. Details on how glasses are made and their common properties and uses.
Composites Introduction to common composite materials, their properties and uses.
Polymer properties Explanation of difference between thermosoftening and thermosetting polymers. Details on high and low density polythene.

The Haber, Ostwald processes and fertilisers

Fertilisers Introduction to NPK fertilisers and their importance and the names of common fertilisers. Brief outline of how superphosphate and triple superphosphate fertilisers are made industrially from phosphate rock.
How to make fertilisers. Details on how to use simple neutralisation reactions to make a range of different make fertilisers.
Making fertilisers in the lab. A practical example on how to prepare the fertiliser ammonium sulfate in the lab using a neutralisation reaction.
The Haber process This page gives details on the Haber process for making ammonia.
The Ostwald process for making nitric acid Discussion of the Ostwald process for making nitric acid.